Introduction to Engines

The machines that convert electrical energy into rotational mechanical energy are known as electric motors and with the discoveries of the relationships between electricity, magnetism and motion, it was probable to develop electric motors of direct and alternating current, single-phase and three-phase. The basis of the operation of electric motors is the principle of magnetic force, where an inductor circuit, called a stator, produces a fixed magnetic field so that the induced circuit, called a rotor, can move when it is being traveled by electric current.

One of the pioneers in the research of electric motors was Michael Faraday who during his experiments observed the manifestation of a circular motion when assembling a circuit in series, with a pile of DC, magnets and two containers full of mercury. In one of the containers, Faraday attached a bar magnet in an upright position and kept a moving wire dipped in mercury. When closing the circuit, it formed electric current and the mobile wire began to rotate around the magnetized bar. In the other vessel, Faraday fed the fixed wire and the moving magnet. Thus, upon closing the circuit, the magnet began to rotate around the fixed wire. Faraday conferred these movements on the action of the magnetic field.

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